From DZ Europe: The story of the 440th Troop Carrier Group
Whenever there’s an army, there is music. Military music for the formalities of parades and retreats and, usually, sweet swing and “hot licks” for the free-time hours.
The men of the 440th Troop Carrier Group, having with them no bandsmen officially assigned, soon filled the musical gap by the creation, under Major Robert W. Hanson, of the “Serenaders,” a fifteen-piece orchestra composed of volunteers from the line-crews, headquarters squadrons and other offices and units of the Group.
Working on their own time, and working arduously, the “Serenaders” developed into a crack dance orchestra whose members – with no fanfare of publicity about the fact – did wonders for the morale of these Troop Carrier boys overseas.
In addition to their regular daylight duties, the “Serenaders doubled in brass – literally – in the military band, which in the full regalio of gleaming helmets, white belts and leggings to contrast their OD uniforms, made gala those formal celebrations in which the 440th participated. Captain Donald G. Genung and his band members received high praise from the members of the 440th.
Flight Officer George Theis recalls his experiences playing for the Serenaders:
“I was their lead alto sax player and that is me in the center of the front row. When I arrived in Orleans, France in mid January 1945, there was an attempt to expand the original band. They noticed on my officer record that I played a saxophone in the high school band. I was approached to see if I would volunteer and I was more than happy to join. Another glider pilot, Jack Seawright, a recent replacement had been a trumpet player and also volunteered.
“We had no band leader at first. Major Hanson, the 98th TCS ex officer played a ukulele and offered to be our band leader. He promised to help us obtain transportation to the many tours that we eventually took into Paris and many other Troop Carrier bases in France plus a flight to the forward base where we played for the troops. We accepted his offer and that started a very rewarding experience.
“We played at the Rainbow Corners one time and on May 8, 1945, we were playing a show at the Grande Hotel when the war officially ended. What a night and what a celebration. One soldier came up to the band stand and asked for Major Hanson’s autograph. When he looked at the signature, he was disappointed as he thought that we were the Glenn Miller band and Hanson was the famous Glenn Miller, who by that time was missing on a flight from England to France. That evening show was recorded and broadcast back to the USA.”
Originally published as “Diary of Events” in DZ Europe: The Story of the 440th Troop Carrier Group.
7 June 1943: Original cadre assembled at Army Air Force School of Applied Tactics, Orlando, Fla., held preactivation meeting, and began four-week course.
1 July 1943: 440th Troop Carrier Group was formally activated at Baer Field, Fort Wayne, Ind.
5 July 1943: Original cadre arrived at Baer Field from Orlando.
10 July 1943: 440th arrived at Sedalia Army Air Base, Warrensburg, Mo., to begin training.
7 September 1943: 440th arrived at Alliance Army Air Base, Alliance, Neb.
17 December 1943: 440th air echelon arrived at Pope Field, Fort Bragg, N.C.
4 January 1944: 440th ground echelon arrived at Pope Field.
4-9 January 1944: Training maneuvers. Five missions were flown with the 17th Airborne Division and the 282d Airborne Engineers.
17-29 January 1944: Bivouacs at Knollwood and Lumberton, N.C.
14-15 February 1944: 440th arrived at Baer Field, Fort Wayne, Ind., to stage for overseas movement.
21-23 February 1944: Air echelon took off from Baer Field on first leg of overseas flight.
23 February 1944: Ground echelon arrived at Camp Shanks, N.Y., port of embarkation.
22-25 February 1944: Air echelon departed Morrison Field, Fla., for United Kingdom via Porto Rico, British Guiana, Belem and Natal, Brazil, Ascension Island and Fernando Island, Liberia, Dakar, and Marrakech.
5-8 March 1944: Air echelon arrived in England at St. Mawgan, Cornwall, and Valley, Wales.
8-11 March 1944: Air echelon proceeded to AAF Station No. 481¸ Bottesford, Nottinghamshire, England, to set up its first overseas headquarters.
14 March 1944: 440th ground echelon sailed from New York Harbor on HMT “Louis Pasteur.”
15 March 1944: Colonel Frank X Krebs assumed command of AAF Station No. 481 in addition to his duties as Group Commander.
18 March 1944: The 440th flew its first mission in the ETO. Eleven patients were evacuated from a hospital in Pershore, North Ireland, to England.
22 March 1944: The “Louis Pasteur” docked at Liverpool.
23 March 1944: 440th ground echelon joined the air echelon at Station No. 481, Bottesford.
11 April 1944: Practice mission PAYLOAD. 440th executed paradrop with 456th Parachute Field Artillery.
13 April 1944: Practice mission PITCH. 440th executed paradrop with 1st Battalion of the 507th Parachute Infantry.
15 April 1944: First 440th formal inspection and review in ETO held on runway at Bottesford.
18 April 1944: Practice mission FAITHFUL. 440th carried units of the 82d Airborne Division.
22 April 1944: Practice mission PLAYPALL. 440th carried units of 82d Airborne Division.
24 April 1944: Practice mission HOPEFUL. 440th carried units of 82d Airborne Division.
26 April 1944: 440th arrived at Station No. 463, Exeter, Devon, in change of station.
1 May 1944: General Omar Bradley visited the 440th at Exeter.
10 May 1944: 440th Airdrome Defense Unit activated.
12 May 1944: Practice mission EAGLE. 440th carried units of 101st Airborne Division in practice paradrop.
27 May 1944: All personnel restricted to base.
3 June 1944: Base completely sealed off. Recognition stripes of black and white were painted on all aircraft and gliders.
5 June 1944: Final briefings were held. Paratroopers appeared on field with full equipment.
6 June 1944: D-Day! Mission NEPTUNE BIGOT! 3d Battalion of 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment and two platoons of Company C, 326th Airborne Engineers Battalion, all of the 101st Airborne Division, were parachuted into Normandy from forty-five 440th aircraft at 0143.
7 June 1944: Mission MEMPHIS! 440th participated in daylight aerial resupply drop to 101st Airborne in Normandy.
23-24 June 1944: First 440th landings in France. Eleven serials flew resupply missions, carrying ammunition to newly-constructed airstrips on Normandy coast.
1 July 1944: First anniversary of 440th Troop Carrier Group celebrated with parade and field day at Exeter airdrome. The Group’s first Purple Heart was awarded to S/Sgt. Ernest Iannuccilli for wounds received on D-Day.
11 July 1944: First Air Medal awarded to 298 air crew members of 440th for participation in the Normandy missions.
14 July 1944: Colonel Frank X. Krebs awarded Distinguished Flying Cross.
16 July 1944: Air excelons of 95th, 96th and 97th Squadrons took off from Exeter for secret flight to Italy via Marrakech.
18 July 1944: Air echelon arrived at Ombrone airstrip, near city of Grosseto, Italy.
30 July 1944: Ombrone based aircraft executed a simulated day paradrop.
5 August 1944: Ombrone based aircraft executed a simulated night paradrop.
7 August 1944: A 440th Provisional Troop Carrier Group was formed in England from an augmented 98th Squadron, 285 men arrived at Station No. 469, Ramsbury.
8 August 1944: Lt. Gen. Eaker, Maj. Gen. Cannon, and Brig. Gen. Williams visited the 440th at Ombrone airstrip.
10 August 1944: In a resupply mission to Mortain, France, from Ramsbury, England, the Provisional 440th dropped supplies to the encircled “Lost Battalion” during the Allied breakthrough in Northern France.
12 August 1944: The 98th Squadron participated in a review of the 1st Allied Airborne Army by Gen. Eisenhower near Ramsbury, England.
15 August 1944: The invasion of Southern France! Operation BIGOT DRAGOON, Mission ALBATROSS! Forty-five aircraft of the 440th at Ombrone, Italy, carried the 2d Battaltion of the 517th Parachute Infantry on the paradrop near LeMuy, France…Mission DOVE followed in the afternoon. 48 aircraft towed gliders carrying the 602d Field Artillery Battalion and the 442d Anti-Tank Company.
23 August 1944: Distinguished Unit Citation awarded 440th Troop Carrier Group for work in Normandy.
24 August 1944: Air echelon departed from Ombrone and arrived at Gibraltar.
25 August 1944: Air echelon arrived back at Exeter Airdrome.
30 August 1944: Air echelon departed Exeter and arrived at Station No. 488, Fulbeck, England, to prepare for new combat mission.
4 September 1944: Air echelon returned to Exeter after mission had been cancelled.
9 September 1944: Advance echelon departed from Exeter and arrived at airstrip A-62, near Reims, France, in the first change of station to the continent.
11 September 1944: Air echelon departed from Reims for Fulbeck, England, after bringing more personnel to Reims.
12 September 1944: Additional personnel brought from Exeter to Fulbeck.
17 September 1944: Mission MARKET! 440th dropped paratroopers behind enemy lines in Holland, near Groesbeek, Colonel Frank X. Krebs and crew missing in action.
18 September 1944: Second day of MARKET missions with gliders towed into Holland. Lt. Colonel Lloyd C. Waldorf assumed command of the 440th.
23 September 1944: Second glider tow into Holland. Major William R. Cooper, commanding officer of 96th Squadron, missing in action with crew.
24 September 1944: All personnel at Fulbeck returned to Exeter.
26-29 September 1944: Glider pilots returned to Exeter from Holland.
30 September 1944: Scattered elements of 440th finally gather from Reims, Exeter, Fulbeck at newly designated base, airstrip A-35, near LeMans, France.
5 October 1944: Lt. Colonel George M. Johnson, Jr., assumed command of the 96th Squadron.
16 October 1944: 440th Troop Carrier Group awarded its first Bronze Battle Star for the Normandy campaign.
18 October 1944: 440th reviewed at A-35 by Lt. Gen. Bereton and Maj. Gen. Williams on occasion of presentation of Distinguished Flying Crosses for Normandy missions. Second Bronze Battle Star was awarded the 440th for participation in the Southern France campaign.
22 October 1944: 440th aircraft began to operate from the nearby airstrip A-38 because of poor condition of A-35.
29 October 1944: Colonel Krebs returned to the 440th after his escape from German-held Holland and reassumed command of the Group.
4-5 November 1944: 440th moved from Le Mans to new station at A-50, Bricy, near Orleans, France.
1 November 1944: 440th participated in Armistice Day parade in Orleans.
12 November 1944: Lt. Colonel Waldorf transferred to AAF Hq., London. Lt. Colonel Bridgman assumed duties as Executive Officer.
12-16 December 1944: Air echelon sojourned at Oakley airdrome, near Oxford, England, for the purpose of executing Practice Mission HOT with 17th Airborne Division. Weather was bad throughout the four days and the mission was cancelled. The 440th returned to Orleans.
24 December 1944: The 440th was alerted and restricted as Von Runstedt’s counter-offensive in the Ardennes rolled forward! Precautions were taken against any possible outbreak by German prisoners of war.
25 December 1944: 440th celebrated its first Christmas overseas.
26 December 1944: Operation REPULSE! The first plane and glider with medical supplies, and ten aircraft and gliders with gasoline were flown into Bastogne to resupply the trapped 101st Airborne Div.
27 December 1944: Operation REPULSE continued! Thirteen aircraft towed gliders loaded with ammunition into Bastogne. 440th suffered its heaviest losses.
29 December 1944: Glider pilots returned from Bastogne.
30 December 1944: 440th was awarded its third Bronze Battle Star for participating in the Rome-Arno campaign.
31 January 1945: 440th awarded its fourth Bronze Battle Star for participation in the Northern France campaign.
1 February 1945: Ten aircraft of the 98th Squadron, led by Lt. Colonel Neal¸ departed for Marseilles to ferry French troops between the front and North Africa.
3 February 1945: Three aircraft of the 96th Squadron dropped rations and ammunition in an aerial resupply mission near Durbuy, Belgium.
13 February 1945: Mission REDBALL! The 440th executed a resupply paradrop of rations and gasoline to units on the front near Bleialf, Germany, who were cut off from rear supply depots by muddy, impassable roads. The paradrop, led by Lt. Colonel Johnson, was made five miles from the fighting front.
4 March 1945: Major Howard H. Cloud, Group Glider Commander, transferred to Hq, IX Troop Carrier Command.
14 March 1945: Practice mission COMET 440th carried the 3d Battalion of the 515th Parachute Infantry, 13th Airborne Division and Company C of the 129th Airborne Engineers in a practice paradrop in France.
17 March 1945: Practice mission TOKEN. 440th participated in glider tow dress rehearsal for next combat mission.
24 March 1945: The crossing of the Rhine, Mission VARSITY! The 440th towed a Reconnaissance Platoon, a IX Troop Carrier Command Control Unit, the 517th Signal Company, and the 139th Airborne Engineers, all of the 17th Airborne Division, across the Rhine in 90 gliders to an area near Wesel, Germany.
26 March 1945: Glider pilots returned from Mission VARSITY.
8 April 1945: First enemy reaction for the 440th in the long series of gasoline hauls to the front in Germany. Two 97th planes were strafed on the ground at airstrip Y-38. The planes were destroyed, one man killed, and three wounded.
10 April 1945: A 98th formation was attacked by an enemy plane over airstrip R-1, Germany, during a combat gasoline haul to the front. One aircraft was set afire and crash landed, the entire crew suffering burns and injuries.
21 April 1945: 440th advance echelon moved to A-94, Conflans-Jarny, to facilitate the daily gasoline hauls to the front.
8 May 1945: V-Day in Europe! 440th paraded in Orleans for the combined Victory celebration and the first Joan of Arc Festival in Orleans for the past five years.
15 May 1945: The 440th advance echelon returned to Orleans from A-94.
6 June 1945: D-Day anniversary celebrated. In a ceremony at Chartres, the Croix de Guerre was awarded to Colonel Krebs, Lt. Colonel Bridgman, Lt. Colonel Cannon, Lt. Colonel Anderson, Lt. Colonel Southard, and Lt. Colonel Neal.
22 June 1945: The 440th was awarded its fifth battle star for the Ardennes campaign.
25 June 1945: The 440th was awarded its sixth battle star for the Central European campaign.
5 July 1945: The 440th was awarded its seventh battle star for the Rhineland campaign.
by Tech. Sgt. Jeffrey Williams
934th Airlift Wing Public Affairs
6/25/2009 – Minneapolis-St. Paul — Part III of a three part series
The Allied invasion of the Normandy beaches on June 6, 1944 may have been the beginning of the end for Adolph Hitler and Nazi Germany, but it proved to be the beginning of a long and hazardous journey for the men of the 96th Troop Carrier Squadron.
Following their success at Drop Zone D, the squadron, part of the larger 440th Troop Carrier Group, continued with resupply missions to ground-based troops in the European theatre, and were detached for service in Italy in July and August 1944. Upon their return to England, the next big operation for the 440th TCG was Operation Comet. Set for early September, the mission was to drop paratroopers in Belgium ahead of General George Patton’s Third Army.
Then tragedy struck.
“My plane ‘Toni’, serial number 919, was first in line. We were placed wingtip to wingtip after being refueled and serviced,” Staff Sgt. Irving Brezack of the 96th TCS wrote in a letter shortly after the Sept. 2, 1944 incident at RAF Fulbeck, England. “My crew chief, Raymond B. Clark, and myself were sitting in the cockpit reading a UFE magazine when a rocking motion struck our airplane, followed by a loud roar… We were told that the paratroopers had dropped a pack while loading the plane. The entire work detail was killed in the explosion. In that crater, which was a twist of fate, all we saw was someone’s dogtag and an open pocket bible. Roll call had to be taken later on that day to see, who was on the detail that unfortunate day.”
Annando Kramer, also of the 96th recalled the incident in a related letter.
“My friend, Roland P.E. Dahlberg, was the crew chief on that airplane, and he was standing right in the doorway of his airplane when that bundle of landmines went off,” Kramer wrote. “Fortunately he had his back turned towards the explosion, or he would have been blinded. At the hospital they dug about 165 pieces of shrapnel out of his body. It was a miracle that he survived, but he had a strong will to live and much faith in Jesus Christ.”
The incident occurred when a detail of paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division’s 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment Company I, were unloading parapacks from a 6×6 truck and placing them under the left wing of the “Bama Belle,” C-47 number 43-15067 belonging to the squadron. One of the parapack bundles toppled onto a bundle containing 28 landmines, which exploded simultaneously. Sgt. Shearer, Pfc. Mitchell and Pvt. Spera were killed instantly and two other member of the 82nd Airborne were wounded. Sgt. Dahlberg was the only casualty in the 96th TCS.
Operation Comet was cancelled due to Patton’s Third Army overrunning the drop zone at Tournai, Belgium.
Their next operation was Operation Market-Garden, a re-crafted version of Operation Comet. It was scheduled for Sept. 17, 1944 and billed as the largest daylight paratroop drop of World War II. Utilizing 1,544 troop carrier aircraft and 478 gliders into the rear areas of the German lines, the plan would outflank Germany’s “Siegfried Line” and liberate Holland. The 96th TCS was to drop paratroopers and gliders from the 82nd Airborne into Nijmegan, Holland during the mission.
The airborne component featured the British 1st Airborne Division taking Arnhem in the north to capture the bridges over the Rhine, the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division was in the center at Nijmegan to secure the bridges over the Meuse and Waal rivers and hold the high ground towards Groesbeek, while the 101st Airborne Division took care of the bridges near Eindhoven, Holland in the south. The British 30th Division would then make its way north through Eindhoven and Nijmegan to link up with their colleagues in Arnhem.
“Colonel Krebs, the Group Commander, was the leader for this big push,” wrote Charles Everett Bullard in his memoir, ‘Little One and His Guardian Angel.’ “At 1104 he opened up his throttles and went thundering down the runway. At regular intervals each following plane took off and immediately fell into formation. In twenty minutes the formerly crowded runway was completely empty. The Colonel took the formation in a wide circle and crossed over the field. We must have put on a spectacular show.”
Flying “Miss Yank,” a 96th TCS C-47 with tail number 42-100965, the colonel and his crew were shot down over Holland during the operation. Except for the navigator, who was captured by the Germans, the entire crew escaped detection for six weeks before making their way back to American lines.
Flight Officer William Hamrick, a navigator with the squadron, recalled the arrival of the colonel in January 1945.
“Colonel Krebs and Major Ottoman had been lost at Bastogne,” he said. “I remember them walking in with their straw hats on. We had a big rally for them.”
Hamrick also recalled a joke he played on Major Ottoman shortly afterwards.
“I said to Major Ottoman, ‘Could you tell me why in the world they sent a bombardier to this unit?’ Ottoman was livid and reported me to Lieutenant Colonel Johnson, our squadron commander. Colonel Johnson and I flew together on a zig-zag pattern and he said to me, ‘Could you direct us back?’ By golly, I got us back and Johnson and I have been friends ever since,” he laughed.
While the ground component of Market-Garden was considered a failure due to the inability of the British 30th Division to reach Arnhem, the airborne component was considered a success due to the 96 percent accuracy in their paratrooper, glider and resupply missions.
As soon as the Airborne forces returned from Holland, after spending 72 days in combat, they were tasked again.
The German’s began a suprise offensive against the Allied lines on Dec. 16, 1944 in the Ardennes, a forest that stretches from the Sambre river in Belgium to the Rhine river in Germany, in an attempt to capture Antwerp, Belgium and drive a wedge between the British and American lines.
Due to the element of surprise, the 101st Airborne Division was driven by truck from Camp Mourmelon in Le Grand, France the 107 miles to Bastogne, Belgium where they were to hold a key junction that would halt the German advance.
The 101st Airborne held their ground for the next two weeks, while running low on critical supplies and despite mounting casualties. Their resistance created a bulge in the German lines, which gave the name of the battle as the “Battle of the Bulge.”
Following Market-Garden, the 440th TCG moved its base of operations from England to Orleans, France, in order to save time and fuel in supporting the Army’s advance across Europe. Inclement weather kept the troop carriers from executing a resupply mission in the early stages of the battle, but when the weather improved, the 96th TCS was tasked with leading the effort.
Bullard writes, “On the morning of December 26th the 440th had its first chance to get in on the act. The job of delivering the first glider into Bastogne was given to the 96th squadron, and at 1025 a C-47 piloted by Captain Raymond H. Ottoman took off with a glider piloted by Lt. Charlton Corwin, Jr., with F/O Benjamin Constantino as co-pilot. The glider was loaded with the surgical team and medical supplies so urgently needed at Bastogne, and at 1400, the run was started.”
The next day, the 96th was again called upon to fly gliders into Bastogne.
In his memoirs titled, “Battered Bastards of Bastogne,” Cpl. George Koskimaki of the 101st Airborne Division writes, “On the morning of December 27th, the 440th was given another glider mission, and at 10:39 eight C-47s and eight gliders of 95th Squadron and five planes and five gliders of the 96th Squadron took off from the air strip at Chateaudun…The 440th gliders were loaded to capacity with high explosives.”
He added, “Before cutting off their gliders the two planes held steady courses and were unable to make any attempt at evasive action. Sgt. Robert J. Slaughter, radio operator of a 96th Squadron ship, was in the astrodome when the right engine of his ship was hit. At the same time, he saw three different planes hit, catch fire and start to fall. A few moments later there was a tremendous explosion in the tail and fire broke out. The bail-out signal was given but only the crew chief was able to get through the cargo door before fire blocked it.”
“Of the five 96th planes, three were shot down with seven crew members killed and two taken prisoner. Both of the 96th planes that managed to get back to Orleans were also heavily damaged. The pilots of both of these ships attributed their safe return to their split-second decision to turn right out of the landing zone instead of to the left as briefed,” Cpl. Koskimaki concluded.
Aircraft numbers 42-100916 and 42-100977 belonging to the 96th TCS are listed as having been shot down with missing aircrew reports on file for Dec. 27, 1944.
The end of the Battle of the Bulge still meant no rest for the fliers of the 96th Troop Carrier Squadron and their colleagues in the 440th Troop Carrier Group as the American and British ground forces smashed through the German defenses and were prepared to cross the Rhine in the heartland of Germany.
Known as Operation Varsity, the plan was to drop paratroopers and gliders from the American 17th Airborne Division and the British 6th Airborne on Mar. 24, 1945 to assist the ground forces and open up the industrial section of the Ruhr river valley and facilitate an end to the war. The 440th TCG was to drop paratroopers and gliders from the 17th Airborne into the Emmerich-Wesel sector.
The squadron flew a total of 22 aircraft during Operation Varsity.
Bullard writes, “The lead ship of the 96th squadron caught a 20-mm shell smack in the nose. He made it back across the Rhine while the crew chief fought fires in the cockpit area, and they managed to make an emergency landing in a field at Eindhoven, Holland. Another of the 96th planes was forced to drop out of formation after two gasoline tanks had been hit. Trailing gas, he had to put in at another emergency airdrome.”
Flight Officer Hamrick recalled both of those incidents.
“Colonel Johnson’s plane was hit in the nose while we were dropping over the Rhine. Capt. James Robertson was the co-pilot and he was trying to use the firefighting equipment to get the flame out,” he said. “Capt. Aldo Tombari got so excited that Johnson had to tell him to sit down because he had to make an emergency landing.”
“2nd Lieutenant Aymon Prudhomme was the pilot of the right wingman plane and 1st Lieutenant Joseph Turecky was the co-pilot. They had a hole in their gas tank and had to set it down. Nobody mentioned anything about that episode until our 1996 reunion in St. Louis. I told Turecky ‘Do you know who told you to land at Wesel?’ He shook his head and said, ‘No.’ I smiled and said, ‘Well you’re looking at him!'” he chuckled.
Operation Varsity was a success, despite having high casualties, and the end of the war was in site.
Without having anymore paratroopers or gliders to drop, the mission of the troop carriers changed. Since Patton’s Third Army raced through the heart of Germany at such a rapid pace, supplies were delivered by aircraft from the 440th TCG’s new base in Metz, France.
On one particular day, Flight Officer Hamrick flew as a navigator with 1st Lt. David Brown, 1st Lt. James Murphy and Sgt. Thomas Pinto on a mission to deliver five-gallon jerricans of fuel to the Third Army. The flight was a routine flight and they made their way back to Metz. He didn’t fly with them the next day but remembers clearly what happened.
“Murphy and Brown slid in a little too close on takeoff and they started to roll out to the left. I could tell the pilot was trying to pull up but the weight of the cargo shifted to the left and they couldn’t pull it up. They came down but didn’t make it out. The plane hit and went off like a bomb had exploded. They were hauling gas,” he said.
“When I got there, their bodies were already taken off. Murphy was a guy who always liked to fly with jump boots on. I saw his leg with a boot by the tail of the aircraft. Pinto, the crew chief, was a Brooklynese kind of a fellow. I saw his coveralls there. He was the only one still with his body in good condition, the rest were consumed by the flames,” he sobbed out of remembrance.
“We lost other guys but seeing that was hard. I still feel deeply hurt. I did get a weeks pass on the Riviera to get over the shock of it, but it never really went away. I flew with the crew the day before it happened. They were all nice young men,” Hamrick concluded.
According to DZ Europe, the official history of the 440th Troop Carrier Group, more than two million air miles had been flown by aircraft and crews of the 440th Troop Carrier Group during the month of April 1945, including more than 13.5 million pounds of freight; 10,000 evacuees, liberated prisoners of war and wounded troops; and 1,230,000 gallons of gasoline. The gasoline alone amounted to 20 percent of the gasoline delivered by the entire IX Troop Carrier Command for all of 1945.
From Operation Neptune on June 6, 1944 until their deactivation on Oct. 18, 1945, the group averaged 650 air miles per sortie. On one particular day 60 aircraft flew 167 sorties, a record for the Group. In one month, 3,182 sorties were flown, 2,508 of which were combat sorties, for a total of 13,330 flying hours.
The 440th Troop Carrier Group was well decorated for their accomplishments. Despite losing 67 men who were killed in action, over 900 Air Medals, 36 Purple Hearts, 32 Bronze Stars, 21 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 8 French Croix de Guerre medals were presented to individual members. The 96th Troop Carrier Squadron earned their fair share of these.
by Tech. Sgt. Jeffrey Williams
934th Airlift Wing Public Affairs
6/6/2009 – Minneapolis, St. Paul — Editor’s note: This is the second in a series of three articles detailing the 934th’s connection to WWII historical events.
On a dreary, overcast June afternoon in Exeter, England, Cpl. William Wildes attached nozzles to the wings of the green and white C-47 Skytrain aircraft formerly known as the “Pride of Minnesota.” Pouring approximately 100 gallons of fuel into each wing, he did it exactly like he had done several times before in the previous months for the training missions to prepare for the Normandy invasion. Nothing seemed out of the ordinary, except the white invasion stripes and the large “6Z” that was painted onto the fuselage earlier in the day.
“The planes were fueled in the afternoon of June 5th. We didn’t know where they were going. We just fueled them like normal,” said Cpl. Wildes, a special vehicle operator for the 96th Troop Carrier Squadron. “One pilot had ‘Pride of Minnesota’ inside an arrowhead painted on the nose, but they made him take it off when they put the invasion stripes on for D-Day.”
By evening, each of the 45 aircraft belonging to the 440th Troop Carrier Group was laden down with paratroopers from the 3rd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division for the flight across the English Channel.
Among the notables flown by the 96th TCS was the famed “Filthy 13,” a demolitions platoon from the 3rd Battalion Company Headquarters. Each member wore a Mohawk-style haircut and face paint and collectively they were quite tenacious fighters.
They also dropped Cpl. Bobbie Rommel, a relative of General Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, who was leading the German resistance in Normandy.
But not everything went without a hitch.
“I heard that somebody ran into the deicer boot and tore it up. They replaced this one plane and put another plane in its place. The crew chief was a guy named Bluestone. I remember him well and I fueled his plane,” the corporal recalled.
“It was all an unknown for us,” said Maj. George Johnson, who was an operations officer with the 98th Troop Carrier Squadron during the invasion. “We dropped at night and daytime for the preparations. When we went into Normandy, it was agreed that Col. Krebs, the group commander, would lead.”
Maj. Johnson was promoted to lieutenant colonel a short time later as the 96th Troop Carrier Squadron commander. After a stellar career, he retired in 1975 at the rank of major general.
At 11:53 p.m., Col. Frank X. Krebs, 440th TCG commander, took off from Exeter in aircraft number 292717, call sign ‘Ada,’ followed by 44 other aircraft from the 95th, 96th, 98th and 98th troop carrier squadrons that comprised the group. Capt. William R. Cooper led the 96th TCS in chalk 19, aircraft number 100965.
Once airborne, the only navigational aids used were blue lights on the tops of the wingtips and fuselage, as the aircraft rendezvoused with other Skytrains from the IX Troop Carrier Command and Royal Air Force. With only the moonlight to navigate them in complete radio silence, the American and British forces joined together to make the big jump across the English Channel as the lighthouses of England slowly slipped away beneath them.
Once they reached the coast of Normandy, a cloud cover enveloped the planes, followed by the blue hue of searchlights and flak from German anti-aircraft batteries.
Col. Krebs honed into the radio signal from the Pathfinders who jumped in an hour before to mark the drop zone. At 1:36 a.m., the paratroopers received the command, “stand up and hook up.” Four minutes later, the green light came on giving the okay to jump. In a matter of seconds, the sky was filled with the billowing white parachutes of the 101st Airborne Division heading for Drop Zone D, near Ste. Mere Eglise, France, 400 feet below.
In his memoirs titled, “The Filthy Thirteen,” Sergeant Jake McNeice wrote the following regarding his flight into Normandy, “Those Germans were firing ammunition up at us that went all through the plane, our chutes and things like that. Those stinking automatic weapons had tracers about every fifth round. It just looked like a string of fire coming up at us. I did not know that there was any other color of tracer than orange but it looked like the greatest display of fireworks that I ever saw in my life. It was beautiful. They would have a blue one then a couple of red then a copule green. There was every color in the rainbow rising up to meet us. We lost several planeloads of paratroopers but the greater part came through it.”
Tech. Sgt. Charles Everett Bullard, a crew chief assigned to the 98th TCS, recorded a piece of 96th TCS history in his memoir, “Little One and His Guardian Angel.”
“Later, we found that two of the 96th squadron planes had crash-landed shortly after dropping their troopers,” he wrote. “One plane of the 96th squadron came in on only one engine with the radio operator wounded by a bullet in the neck. He was the group’s first Purple Heart winner; Staff Sergeant Earnest S. Iannuccilli.”
Cpl. Wildes remembers the scene when the aircraft returned.
“I was on guard duty when they left and was still up when they returned,” he said. “Some of the guys they brought back were shot up quite a bit. One of them got shot in the privates from flak that penetrated underneath the aircraft. It was a real mess. Tech. Sgt. Edward Bluestone, the crew chief whose plane I fueled earlier that day, well we lost him on that day at D-Day.”
While other troop carrier groups were scattered due to the cloud covering at the coast, misplaced their drops by flying in too fast, or were shot down by the Germans, only the 3rd Battalion of the 506th P.I.R. landed in close proximity to their designated drop zone.
At 6:30 a.m., the main landing force of the 1st, 4th and 29th U.S. Infantry Divisions, 2nd Ranger Battalion, 3rd and 50th British Infantry Divisions and Canada’s 3rd Infantry Division landed at Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword beaches making a 60-mile long front.
But the battle was not over for the 96th TCS.
At dawn on the morning of June 7, Maj. Johnson flew the lead aircraft in the resupply mission.
“All of we operations officers were to fly on the resupply mission,” he said. “We carried ammunition, food, medical supplies and water.”
“We went in about 15 to 20 miles behind enemy lines, descended to 500 feet for the drop and came back across Omaha beach. We had a beautiful view of the landing craft,” Johnson said.
“There was lots of flak and small arms fire and aircraft damage. We were fortunate that we didn’t lose any aircraft. We were so low that all the people on the ground could shoot at us with small arms fire. I led them down to treetop level and then got out of there and back up to the proper altitude,” he remembered.
“It was quite an event in our lives. We got out of there quickly after we did our jobs. We were very fortunate,” he concluded.
Little did anybody know, on the evening of June 5, that there would be heroes in the making who jumped out of the aircraft early the next morning. Of the 231 soldiers of the 506th P.I.R. who lost their lives at Normandy, 103 were from the 3rd Battalion, including those who died in three of the 440th TCG aircraft that perished in the operation.
The 96th Troop Carrier Squadron was awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation, the precursor to the Presidential Unit Citation, for their efforts 65 years ago.